A mortgage isn't a loan. It's actually the security document that protects your bank's rights under your loan. In a mortgage, you give the bank a right to your house or other building -- but that comes into play only if you don't make your payments. Mortgages are legal documents that are recorded against the ownership record of your house or building; however, there are times when they aren't written correctly.
A legal mortgage is exactly what it sounds like -- it's a security instrument that meets all of your state's laws. Legal mortgages have all of their blanks filled in with correct information and are signed in the right places. They're also recorded according to the laws and regulations of the county in which the property is located. Legal mortgages are binding documents that, without a doubt, lock you into making your loan payments or facing foreclosure.
There are times when something goes wrong with a mortgage. For instance, the lender might have forgotten to fill in the legal description blank on the mortgage. Alternately, you and your spouse might have signed on the wrong lines. Technically speaking, the mortgage you signed (or forgot to sign) isn't a valid document. However, most courts will look at your intent and decide that it's an equitable mortgage, since calling it a mortgage would be the fair (equitable) decision based on what your intent appeared to be.
Other Equitable Mortgages
Equitable mortgages can be created in some other, more arcane legal situations. For instance, if the lender makes you give it an actual deed that it holds in escrow so that it can take your property without foreclosure, a court would probably roll it back to an equitable mortgage. Vendor and vendee liens, which are sometimes used in contract for deed transactions, can also turn into equitable mortgages.
Equitable Mortgage Priority
Equitable mortgages are mortgages that have to be honored, just like legal mortgages. However, there is one key difference: A legal document can jump ahead of an equitable one in priority. If you sign an incorrectly drafted mortgage in 2012, then put a second legal mortgage on your property in 2013, that second mortgage would actually become your first mortgage. However, your ability to do this will depend based on the laws in your community.
- Comstock/Comstock/Getty Images